The malacology collection contains 14528 samples (gastropods and bivalves). 2183 of them are exotic samples, species specific to the fauna of the Oceans Atlantic, Pacific and Indian and to the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea and continental fauna of Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. 12 345 samples are autochthonous, coming from all the Romanian territory, the oldest dating from 1935. The pieces have been collected both by the museum specialists and through acquisitions or donations.

The most important acquired samples belong to the collections Al.V.Grossu and dr. A.Popescu-Gorj. These collections contain numerous rare and endemic species and also paratype samples.